The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the type and quantity of middle school students’ family paper books and electronic devices factors affecting PISA scientific results in large-scale evaluations. The data is from PISA’s 2015 China Four Provinces (B-J-S-G) sampling, with an effective sample of 9,359. The study validated the relationship between the types and quantity of books and electronic devices for middle school students and the scientific achievements of students through regression analysis and F-test. The study found that the more types and quantity of middle school students’ family books, the better the students’ scientific achievements; the more types of electronic devices (within five kinds), the better the students’ scientific achievements, but the more the quantity, the worse the students’ scientific achievements.
With the rapid development of science and technology, the study of the relationship between student academic achievement and family paper books and electronic products has attracted more and more scholars’ attention. Along with PISA2015 result mainly measures students’ scientific achievement, this research aims at examining the following hypothesis: There is a correlation between the scientific achievements of Chinese middle school students and the conditions of paper books and electronic devices.
This study attempts to respond to the impact of Chinese family paper books and electronic devices on the scientific achievement of middle school students, and explores the impact between the quantity and types of family paper books, and the quantity and types of electronic devices.
– Independent variables
According to the PISA2015 Student Questionnaire, there are six main types of family collections, including classical books (such as Shakespeare), poetry books, books to help with your school work, technical reference books, dictionary books, art, music or design books. According to the statistics of frequency distribution, less than 3 kinds of book types in the family are grouped into fewer, and there are more than 3 kinds of book types in the family. According to the PISA2015 questionnaire classification, the quantity of family books mainly has six intervals, including 0-10, 11-25, 26-100, 101-200, 201-500, and 500 or more.
There are five main types of home electronic devices, including televisions, smart phones, computers, tablets, and e-book devices. The frequency distribution statistics will take the sample as 8 critical points, the families with 0 to 8 electronic devices will be grouped into low levels, the households with 8 electronic devices will be grouped at medium level, and the households with 8 to 15 electronic devices will be grouped into High level.
– Dependent variables
PISA2015 measures and assesses students’ scientific achievement by examining the ability of 15-year-old high school students to use scientific knowledge to identify problems, acquire new knowledge, explain scientific phenomena, and derive empirically based conclusions. It is measured by the average score.
This study selected data from four provinces (cities) such as Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong in China for in-depth analysis. PISA2015 comprehensively adopts various methods such as staged sampling, probability proportional sampling and simple random sampling, from 1507518 to various educational institutions in four provinces (cities) in China (including general education and vocational education, full-time and part-time, public). Among the students who were 15 years old (15 years old, 3 months to 16 years old and 2 months) with various types of private and other types of 7th grade and above, 9841 students were selected to participate in the scientific achievement test and filled out the relevant questionnaires. The weighted subjects covered 96.0% of the target population. For the study, the effective sample was 9359.
Data Analysis and Results
Statistical test of the quantity of family books and the impact of students’ scientific achievement: Pearson’s product difference: r=0.373, P < 0.001; The quantity of family books has a significant correlation with the student’s scientific achievement: y=423.555+23.198x.
The level value of the original variable is re-set, through the F-test (ANOVA) on the low, medium and high level of family books and the scientific achievements of students, the results show that the level effect of family books is extremely significant. One-Way ANOVO statistical analysis of the scientific achievements of family students with low, medium and high levels of family books. The results show that F(2,9779)=404.487, P<0.001. There are extremely significant differences in the scientific achievements of students. After the multiple analysis comparison test shows that there are significant differences between the scientific achievements of students with three different levels of quantity of family books. That is, the high-level book quantity of students has the best scientific achievement, the middle level is the second, and the low level is the worst.
According to the same method, There is a significant correlation between family electronic device types and students’ scientific achievements, and there are significant differences in the scientific achievements of students with three different levels of household electronic devices. The quantity of low-level electronic devices is the best among the students, the middle level is the second, the highest level is the worst.
Conclusion and discuss
This paper starts from the type and quantity of family paper books and electronic devices, and studies its influence on students’ scientific achievements. In conclusion, the more types and quantity of middle school students’ family books, the better the students’ scientific achievements; the more types of electronic device (within five kinds), the better the students’ scientific achievements, but the more the quantity, the worse the students’ scientific achievements. To a certain extent, it reflects the influence of different family resources on students’ scientific achievements, and also inspires us to pay more attention to paper books and appropriately control the quantity of electronic devices for the scientific study of middle school students. Based on this, the following researches are proposed for the future: (1) whether there is an intermediary or adjustment variable between the independent and dependent variables; (2) compare the situation of different countries, explore differences and the generalization of conclusions.
Shiyun Wang, female, doctoral student at Institute of International and Comparative Education (IICE), Faculty of Education (FoE), Beijing Normal University (BNU).
To contact Shiyun Wang, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.