As Information Communication Technology (ICT) has become an essential part of everyday life, a demand for utilizing ICT in social development has also become greater than ever. Use of ICT in education has been strongly encouraged as it can improve many aspects of education practice, including quality of teaching and learning. This trend is no exception in Mongolia. In fact, a high expectation was posed to education sector to achieve efficient ICT integration. Responding to the governmental initiatives, a number of efforts has been implemented to achieve efficient ICT integration in education. However, the environment for fully utilizing the ICT for teaching has not yet implemented completely.
The reason behind such situation are not only insufficient physical resources, but also a lack of knowledge and experience using ICT in education. In fact, the internal factors are as important as external factors factors (Afshari, Abu Bakar, Su Luan, & Siraj, 2012; Raj, Ghani, & Isail, 2015) With this in mind, this study focuses on one of the internal factors, school leadership, and investigates its relationship to ICT implementation at primary schools in Mongolia.
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge base of the ICT integrated education. The study pay close attention to the factors related to school leadership, as an attitude of school leaders is one of the most important aspects for school and education reform (Afshari, Abu Bakar, Su Luan, & Siraj, 2012). It intends to revel the relationships between ICT implementation at school level and leadership behavers in the context of Mongolian primary school.
Among several leadership theories in education, the transformational leadership is considered to be one of the most desirable model to promote ICT integration in school. The transformational leader is often described in four components (Bass & Avolio, 1994). : 1) Charisma or idealized influence, 2) Inspirational motivation 3) Intellectual stimulation, and 4) Individualized consideration. By making use of these characteristics, transformational leaders achieve educational changes. This study looks at school leaders’ such qualities, and investigate how they are related to the ICT integration in the education practice. More specifically it attempts to answer following research questions: 1) What are the relationship between factors related to transformational leadership and leaders’ perception on ICT use in classroom teaching? ; 2) What are the relationship between factors related to transformational leadership and leaders’ perception on funding allocation for ICT training?
The quantitative data was retrieved through the baseline survey on “Quality Improvement of Primary Education Teachers through Development of Training Materials Using ICT”, which was conducted in 2012 in Mongolia. A total of 222 school leaders from five different regions in the country responded to the survey. The pairwise correlation coefficient were calculated to assess the relationships between the factors related to transformational leadership and the perceived situation of ICT implementation at schools.
The study found that the component of inspirational motivation is an important factor to have a positive perception implementing ICT at schools. It also found that the factors related to charisma of the leaders are relatively weaker component for perceived ICT use in classroom teaching, while it showed the highest degree of correlation to perceived funding allocation for ICT training. Perceived teachers’ collaboration is an important factors both ICT use in classroom teaching and funding decision for ICT training. The study reveals that the transformational leadership is closely related to ICT implementation in Mongolia. Based on these findings, it discuss the implications and suggests recommendations for education planning.
As this study covers more than 15% of primary school leaders from diverse areas of the country, it is expected to be a useful information for planning education and policy discussions in Mongolia, especially in the area of professional development of school leaders.